Work Packages

Work Packages

WP01: Specifications

To reconfirm and agree the system requirements for producing biofuels (material selection, components, scale-up, final product to extract)


WP01 Leader

WP02: Synthesis and Scale up of AQCs

To synthesise and scale up production of different sized silver AQCs (for application in WP4) absorbing in a wide range of solar spectrum (300-900nm) and in conjunction with WP3 targeting the following:
• Using the Electrochemical synthesis (ECS) method to produce lab-scale quantities of small AQCs (mg/day) by Month 2 (TRL4) and pilot-scale quantities (1g/day) by month 12 (TRL5)
• Using the photochemical/chemical reduction (P/CR) method to produce lab-scale quantities (mg/day) of large AQCs by month 12 (TRL4) and pilot-scale quantities (1g/day) by month 24 (TRL5)


WP02 Leader

WP03: Theoretical Study of AQCs

To model the synthesis of AQCs in WP2 and optimisation of catalyst performance in WP4 using:
• Density Functional Theory (DFT) to model quantum properties, energy gaps and charge density distributions.
• Classical molecular dynamics to model the kinetics of products at their surface
• DFT combined with molecular dynamics to model the energetics of AQC formation particularly how small AQCs can catalyse the formation of larger AQCs.


WP03 Leader

WP04: Photocatalysis development


To assess the photocatalytic performance of the candidate AQC materials for the production of hydrogen with the following performance targets:

  • Photocatalytic efficiency of at least 10%
  • Stability of at least 720 h

Hydrogen production rate of 1milimol/h on lab-scale and targeting 1l/d on the demo scale reactor (1m2)


WP04 Leader

WP05: Bacteria Development


  1. To select suitable acetogens
  2. To make strains genetically accessible
  3. To develop genome editing tools.
  4. To identify target fuel molecules by thermodynamic analysis of product formation.
  5. To make a metabolic model
  6. To identify editing targets
  7. To perform genome editing and phenotype characterisation
  8. To conduct Metabolic flux analysis
  9. To test in cooperation with WP 6


WP05 Leader

WP06: Electro-biocatalytic conversion of CO2/H2 into fuels


  • To develop a bio electrochemical process for converting CO2/H2 (generated in the photocatalytic process developed in WPs2-4) into fuel molecules such as ethanol and/or butanol using electroactive bacteria and modified strains of bacteria as developed in WP5 by:
    • Using a lab-scale fermenter of up to 1 litre electrolyte capacity and electrode surface area of ~400cm2 with direct integration of an electrochemical cell to steer fermentation. They will be run under different electrode potentials, partial pressures of H2 and CO2 and with or without the use of gas diffusion electrodes (GDE).
    • In-situ H2 generation options will also be investigated. Matching of H2 supply and demand will be experimentally optimized in line with that developed in WP4.
    • Well-functioning BES will also be tested for the effect of organisms that may consume the end product (reverse metabolism), in view of scale up under non-sterile conditions.
  • To demonstrate overall efficiency of the process for existing biosynthetic systems of up to 15% under ambient air conditions through the following:
    • Butanol production rate of at least 15 g/l/hour on the lab-scale
    • Ethanol production rate of at least 20g/l/hour on the lab-scale


WP06 Leader

WP07: Process Scalability


  • To demonstrate the Bac-To-Fuel process for advanced renewable fuel production through biological conversion of CO2 and renewable hydrogen at TRL5 through integration of both processes (from WP4 and 6) at Vito to validate overall efficiency of the process for existing biosynthetic systems of up to 15% under ambient air conditions through the following:
    • Butanol production rate of at least 15 g/l/hour on the lab-scale
    • Ethanol production rate of at least 20g/l/hour on the lab-scale


WP07 Leader

WP08: Dissemination, Exploitation & Communication


  • To conduct the dissemination and exploitation for the project through the following activities:
    • Defining measures to ensure that the results of the project will be disseminated to industry.
    • Assuring that the project IP and results are adequately protected.
    • Designing a plan for the dissemination and exploitation of the project results
    • Optimising the collaboration between partners exchanging knowledge by means of training activities.
    • Assuring that there is an on-going communication between the consortium and the general public/stakeholders
    • Supporting knowledge exchange between partners by means of workshops with internal/external audiences to optimise integration effects and collaboration by means of training activities.
  • To create a business plan for the technology and consortium to optimise commercial opportunities.
  • To conduct IP landscape analysis to ensure freedom to operate using network patent analysis

WP08 Leader

WP09: Management


The objective of this work package is to ensure that all knowledge is created, managed and disseminated in a coordinated and coherent manner and that all technical activities, legal aspects and other issues are managed to a high standard. Ensure all aspects of the EC requirements for communication and reporting are met.  Coordinate the overall legal, contractual, financial and administrative management of the consortium. To ensure that all project results are formulated and compiled into a form that can be protected by the most appropriate legal enforceable protection method. The control and management of scientific knowledge transfer from the research consortium members to enable this technology to be applied to new markets and applications. Broadcast and disseminate the benefits of the developed technology and knowledge beyond the consortium to other potential industrial communities. Manage and assess the social economic impact of the generated scientific knowledge and technology.


WP09 Leader