The CCUS supply chain involves the capture—separation and purification—of carbon dioxide (CO2) from stationary sources so it can be transported to a suitable location where it is used to create products or injected deep underground for safe, secure, and permanent storage. Stationary CO2 emissions are generated at fixed points and include sources such as power generation and industrial processes


In the world there are 19 large scales facilities that avoid 32 MM tonnes of CO2 through it out into the atmosphere. In the EEUU, the amount of facilities just covers 1 % of their total emissions, estimated in 5,2 Billion tonnes.

World large scales facilities1932MM tonnes CO2 avoided 
EEUU large scale CCUS1025MM tonnes CO2 avoided1% of the emissions avoided
EEUU emissions in 2019 5,2 Billion tonnes of CO2 emitted in 2019 
From Stationary points65002,6 Billion tonnes of CO2 emitted in 2019 

EEUU is the leader on disruptive technologies to storage and reuse CO2 (enhanced oil recovery). In order to reach higher level of reduction, it has created 4 phases along 25 years where the EEUU will be able to avoid the 20 % of their emissions. The incentive is based on boost the price from 0 $ (current status) to 110, avoiding 500 Million tonnes. It is called the phase of deployment, when technologies that will be in early stages of development, could reach higher level of maturity and be installed in US facilities.

 PeriodName phaseIncentiveCO2 avoided% reduction
PHASE 02019025.106tonnes1 %
PHASE I7 yearsActivation50 $/tonne40.106tonnes 
PHASE II15 yearsExpansion90 $/tonne85.106tonnes 
PHASE III25 yearsDeployment110 $/tonne500.106tonnes20%

This strategy is supported on the increase of pipeline system around their facilities, creating an environment that will facilitate cost reduction due to the improvement on infrastructures, that will open the opportunities for other companies, to get advantages of this pipeline system to introduce their CO2. A framework around CO2 will be created and so a market.

As explained before, the CO2 is capture, transported and converted or storage deep underground.

Source of CO2

CO2 is emitted from a wide range of sources across a broad range of industries. The original source of the carbon in the CO2 is the carbon present in a wide variety of feedstocks used in natural and industrial processes to create and supply the products necessary for modern life. These industrial processes release some or all of the CO2 generated.

  • Biomass absorbs carbon from the air as it grows and can be used to generate liquid fuels, such as ethanol, or burned to create heat and power.
    • Natural gas is produced and then processed (natural gas processing) to remove CO2 to meet use specifications. Natural gas can be:
      • Used to generate electricity in power plants
      • Used to provide heat and energy in industrial furnaces and stoves
    • Separated to make hydrogen for use in industrial processes and refining, and for the creation of chemicals such as ammonia
      • Used in the production of cement.
    • Coal is predominantly burned in power plants to generate electricity, although it is also used to provide high temperature heat to industrial furnaces, steel furnaces, and cement plants. 
    • Crude oil is processed at refineries to generate gasoline and other hydrocarbon-based products. 
    • Municipal trash can be burned to generate electricity or gasified and converted to liquid fuels such as diesel and jet fuel.
    • CO2 is released from limestone as it is heated to produce cement.
    • CO2 is also present in ambient air. This CO2 can be removed from the air through direct air capture technologies.

In these sources, industries, and processes, CO2 is produced in a variety of volumes and concentrations. Some processes, such as natural gas processing, ethanol fermentation, and ammonia production, create streams that have concentrations of 95% to 100% CO2. The concentrated streams produced from these facilities typically require no separation and only dehydration and compression before transport.

Most of the other processes produce lower concentration streams that will require further separation before dehydration and preparation for transport. Typical CO2 concentrations are as follows:

  • Industrial hydrogen plants: 15% to 95% 
  • Steel blast furnaces: 26%
  • Cement plants: 20%
  • Refinery fluidized catalytic crackers: 16%
  • Coal power plants: 13%
  • Industrial furnaces: 8%
  • Natural gas power plants: 4%

CO2 Capture:

CO2 is produced in combination with other gases during industrial processes, including hydrocarbon-based power generation. CO2 capture involves the separation of the CO2 from these other gases. This step, which can represent around 75% of the cost of the CCUS supply chain for low concentration streams, presents the largest opportunity to apply technological innovation to help reduce overall cost. Oil and natural gas producers have decades of experience in separating CO2 from hydrocarbons, and other industries are making progress in separating CO2 from their own process streams. The separation of CO2 can be accomplished through the application of four main CO2 capture technologies:

  • Absorption, which is the uptake of CO2 into the bulk phase of another material 
  • Adsorption, which is the uptake of CO2 onto the surface of another material
  • Membranes, which selectively separate CO2 primarily based on differences in solubility or diffusivity 
  • Cryogenic processes, which chill the gas stream to separate CO2


In most cases, captured CO2 will need to be transported from the capture location to a location where it can be stored or utilized. Typical modes of transportation are as follows:

  • Pipelines are generally the most cost-effective method of transporting large volumes of any fluid, including CO2. In most cases, CO2 is compressed into a dense phase, referred to as a supercritical fluid, before entering a pipeline system. In this state, CO2 can be pumped like other liquids 
  • Railcars may be cost effective for small to medium volumes of CO2 over longer distances if there are existing rail routes from near the source to the vicinity of the storage. Rail transport may require construction of a liquefaction facility at the point of origin 
  • Trucks may be cost effective for very small volumes of CO2 traveling short distances. Like rail, trucking can take advantage of existing infrastructure, but also like rail, liquefaction facilities may be needed at the point of origin 
  • Ship and barge transport is technically feasible but has only been demonstrated in isolated instances. Ship transport of CO2 could potentially move large volumes of CO2 from source locations with limited storage capacity to locations with ample storage capacity located near waterways that can accommodate such vessel.


CO2 use technologies convert CO2 into valuable products like fuels, chemicals, and materials through chemical reactions and/or biological conversions. There are four primary technology pathways for CO2 use and conversion:            

  1. Thermochemical CO2 conversion              
  2. Electrochemical and photochemical CO2 conversion         
  3. Carbonation (carbon mineralization) of CO2        
  4. Biological CO2 use.          

Overall, CO2 use is the least mature component in the CCUS technology chain. It presents significant opportunities and multiple technology pathways for the development of processes to convert CO2 from captured emissions and waste CO2 into useful products


Safe and secure geologic storage of CO2 requires that the injection formation have enough pore space, or porosity, within which CO2 can be contained. The formation must also have enough pathways connecting this pore space, which defines its permeability, so that CO2 can be injected and move within the formation. The storage formation also needs to have a geologic seal—an overlying layer of nonporous, impermeable rock that prevents the injected CO2 from leaving the formation. To ensure that the CO2 is stored as a supercritical fluid, which has benefits for storage security and efficient storage space utilization, formations need to be at a depth of about 1 km or more.  Examples of subsurface formations include saline formations, oil and natural gas reservoirs, and un-mineable coalbeds. Globally, there are more than 20 years of experience with CO2 injection for large-scale (more than 1 Mtpa) geologic storage, such as the Sleipner gas field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. In the United States, small-scale projects have been operating for nearly as long, while the large-scale Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Project has been operating since 2017.

In order to remove CO2 we would need to established the following targets to increase the probability of improvements:

  • Meet pipelines specifications
  • Enough return from the integrated CCS-EOR project
  • Executing successful CO2 capture projects
  • Investing in CO2 pipeline infrastructure (essential for increase options for industry to capture, storage and use)
  • Establishing a supportive regulatory framework
  • Enacting world-leading policy support
  • Investing in research, development, and demonstration (RD&D).


There are several projects around the world (small scale in many cases) that handle different techniques or technologies to capture and use CO2. In the following tables it is shown by continent the main projects with characteristics:

Project nameProcessStatusDateLocationCO2 source
ArcelorMittal Steelanol GhentProduce bioethanol from CO2 emissions from blast furnaces in a steel mill. LanzaTech’s gas fermentation technology.In construction2020BelgiumIron and steel
Twence Waste-to-energy CO2 Capture and UtilisationCapturing CO2 from the flue gasses for the production of sodium bicarbonate.Operational2014NetherlandsWaste incineration
Project nameProcessApplicationStatusTonnes/year of CO2YearCountryCO2 source
Tuticorin CCU Project (Carbon Clean Solutions)CO2 captureFeedstock for soda ash production 600002016IndiaPower generation
Shanghai Shidongkou 2nd Power Plant Carbon Capture Demonstration ProjectCO2 captureBeverage industryOperational1200002009ChinaPower generation
Toshiba CorporationCO2 captureCrop cultivation and algae culture. 36502016JapanSaga City Waste Incineration Plant
Huaneng Gaobeidian Power Plant Carbon Capture Pilot ProjectCO2 captureBeverage industry 3000 ChinaCoal-fired power plant
CO2 Recovery PlantsCO2 recoveryFood and beverage industry 100000 ChinaChemical industry: ammonia production
Chongqing Hechuan Shuanghuai: Industrial Demonstration ProjectCO2 captureHydrogen cooled generator replacementOperational100002010ChinaPower generation
Alcoa Kwinana Carbonation PlantCO2 valorisationTreatment carbonation plantOperational70000 AustraliaFertiliser production
Beijing Shougang LanzaTech New Energy TechnologyCO2 valorisationFuel grade ethanol.  2018ChinaIron and Steel production
Project nameCCUS TechnologyProductionStatusTonnes/yearLocationCO2 source
SABIC Carbon Capture and Utilisation ProjectCCUS technologyEnhanced methanol chemical and urea fertiliser production. 550000Saudi ArabiaChemical production: ethylene glycol plants
Project nameCCUS TechnologyProductionStatusTonnes/yearLocationDateCO2 source
AES Shady Point CO2 Recovery PlantCO2 recoveryfood & beverageOperational66000USA Power generation
AES Warrior Run CO2 Recovery PlantCO2 recoveryfood & beverageOperational110000USA Power generation
CO₂MENT projectCO₂ capture Advanced development365Canada2021Cement production
Saint-Felicien Pulp Mill and Greenhouse Carbon Capture ProjectCO2 capture Operational10000Canada2019Pulp and paper production
Searles Valley Minerals CO2 Capture PlantCO2 capturecarbonate brine for soda ashOperational300000USA Power generation
Skyonic Carbon Capture and Mineralisation ProjectCO2 capture and mineralisationsodium bicarbonate.Operational75000USA Cement production
Project nameCCUS TechnologyProductionStatusTonnes/yearLocationCO2 source
Swayana MpumalangCO2 valorisationFuel ethanolDevelopment planningSouth Africa2020Industrial application: Ferroalloy plant

We have seen that in Europe there are existing projects to produce ethanol from CO2 that has been captured. Asia also lead with innovative technologies of capture and valorisation. It is highlighting the different sectors of CO2 resources that have applied to collaborate. From power to fertilizer, cement and chemical production. That’s a new approach among companies to cut their emissions meanwhile getting revenues (food beverages, fuel grade ethanol). So, we can conclude that bactofuel could be part of this ecosystem.

A NEW PERSPECTIVE. IN THE RESEARCH OF A SEGMENT MARKET: Analysis of different factors related to CCUS technologies

In the following paragraphs and tables, an outlined analysis has been prepared to determine the best location of the facility, in relation with this regard. Analysing by storage resources, legal and regulatory framework proactivity, we might screen and select the most attractive country for Bactofuel technology application. The criteria analysed was:

  • Storage resources
  • Storage indicators
  • Legal and regulatory framework
  • Policy indicator
  • CCS requirement indicator

Storage resources: National resources in GtCO2: include deep saline formation, depleted oil and gas fields, and CO2-EOR estimates

Less than 1 (GtCO2)1-9 (GtCO2)10-100 (GtCO2)+100 (GtCO2)
CzechiaIndonesiaRomaniaSouth Africa
 CroatiaSaudi ArabiaAustralia

As Bactofuel is a project that will “compete” with CCS technologies, the lower storage resources the better, because if, in the near future, more policy restrictions to cut CO2 emissions will be integrated in the value chain of stakeholders, CO2 must be either stored or used. So countries like Spain, Italy or Hungary would be on the list.

Storage indicators: individual nation’s development of its storage resources. The indicator evaluates a country’s geological storage potential, maturity of their storage assessments and progress in the deployment of CO2 injection sites.

PakistanSouth AfricaArgeliaCanada
 MoroccoSpainSaudi Arabia
 GreeceRussiaUnited Kingdom

Storage indicators will be translated in efforts that countries are doing to speed up on CCS technologies.  Also, it could be translated in level of interest of countries to improve their CCS technologies. So the higher, the better. France, Spain, Italy and Hungary might be the options, among others.

Legal and regulatory framework: Administrative and permitting arrangements across the project lifecycle, including issues related to environmental assessments, public consultation and long-term liability

Saudi ArabiaBrazilFranceCanada
 South AfricaPoland 

This is one of the key aspects, the level of commitment of governments to include CCUS technologies in their legislation. The higher the better. It will mean that the country will be more open for disruptive technologies like Bactofuel. Italy, Hungary, France and Portugal have good levels of regulatory. However, India, Ireland and China, among others, have low levels of legal framework.

Policy indicator: Individual nation’s CCS policy development. Direct support for CCS to broaden implicit climate change and emissions reduction policies. The resulting indicator score represents a comprehensive model for tracking progress and opportunities for the development of policies to support CCS deployment.

South AfricaFranciaDenmarkChina 
Saudi ArabiaMexico EEUU 
IndonesiaItaly Canada 

Also, it is important for Bactofuel high policy indicators. It will be translated in same solutions has been implemented, or there are options for reduce GHG emissions, and Bactofuel could be an option to be added for one company based there. None of the countries selected in previous rounds appear on the highest columns. Bad policies in Spain, Italy or Portugal would lead to discard this country due to their poor policies regulations on this regard.

CCS requirement indicator: Relative index based on the global share of fossil fuel production and consumption. It provides one guide of a country’s need to deploy CCS to reduce their emissions from fossil fuels.

VenezuelaSouth AfricaPoland 
 Saudi ArabiaKazakhstan 

As one of the market segments is work in collaboration with petrochemical companies, this parameter also could show us what countries, even though they are working with other CCS technologies, they are still far above from the targets established. On the left side of the table, we could summarize what countries are not working on reduce their emissions. Libya, Venezuela and Bolivia are one among others included in this list. Germany appears as a candidate. Australia also would be a good candidate.

– CCS READINESS INDEX: it monitors the progress of CCS deployment. The index tracks a country’s requirement for CCS, its policy, law and regulation and storage resource development. Through these indicators, the RI identifies those nations which are leaders in the creation of a enabling environment for the commercial deployment of CCS.

 Saudi ArabiaMexicoCanada
 South AfricaPoland 

Germany, Norway, UK, EEUU, are part of the list of good candidates for include Bactofuel within their project portfolios.

This task will be developed when the appendix “location” within the tech-to-market plan. Once the market analysis is defined, and process and capacity are defined too, we could establish a relationship between them to look for the best scenario.